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References after March 2023

These references are after March 2023 and the infographic is not informed by these references.

Benefits and Effectiveness of mRNA Vaccines in Pregnancy:

  1. Molina RL, Tsai TC, Dai D, et al. Comparison of Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Before vs During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Network Open. 2022;5(8):e2226531-e2226531. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.26531


Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines During Pregnancy:

  1. Sadarangani M, Soe P, Shulha HP, et al. Safety of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy: a Canadian National Vaccine Safety (CANVAS) network cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2022;22(11):1553-1564. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00426-1

Risks Associated With COVID-19 in Pregnancy:


  1. Briller JE, Aggarwal NR, Davis MB, et al. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy-Associated COVID-19 Infections. JACC: Advances. 2022/08/01/ 2022;1(3):100057. doi:

Effect COVID-19 Vaccines on Fertility:

  1. Ljung R, Xu Y, Sundström A, et al. Association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and healthcare contacts for menstrual disturbance and bleeding in women before and after menopause: nationwide, register based cohort study. BMJ. 2023;381:e074778. doi:10.1136/bmj-2023-074778
  2. Darney BG, Boniface ER, Van Lamsweerde A, et al. Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination on menstrual bleeding quantity: An observational cohort study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2023/06/01 2023;130(7):803-812. doi: