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References after March 2023

The following references are added after March 2023 and last updated in October 2023. These were not used in the development of infographic.

Benefits and Effectiveness of mRNA Vaccines in Pregnancy:

  1. Molina RL, Tsai TC, Dai D, et al. Comparison of Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Before vs During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Network Open. 2022;5(8):e2226531-e2226531. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.26531
  2. Simeone RM, Zambrano LD, Halasa NB, et al. Effectiveness of Maternal mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination During Pregnancy Against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations in Infants Aged <6 Months During SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Predominance – 20 States, March 9, 2022-May 31, 2023. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Sep 29 2023;72(39):1057-1064. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7239a3

 Safety of COVID-19 Vaccines During Pregnancy:

  1. Sadarangani M, Soe P, Shulha HP, et al. Safety of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy: a Canadian National Vaccine Safety (CANVAS) network cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2022;22(11):1553-1564. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00426-1
  2. McClymont E, Atkinson A, Albert A, et al. Reactogenicity, pregnancy outcomes, and SARS-CoV-2 infection following COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy in Canada: A national prospective cohort study. Vaccine. Oct 19 2023;doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2023.10.032

Risks Associated With COVID-19 in Pregnancy:

  1. Briller JE, Aggarwal NR, Davis MB, et al. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy-Associated COVID-19 Infections. JACC: Advances. 2022/08/01/ 2022;1(3):100057. doi:

Effect COVID-19 Vaccines on Fertility:

  1. Ljung R, Xu Y, Sundström A, et al. Association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and healthcare contacts for menstrual disturbance and bleeding in women before and after menopause: nationwide, register based cohort study. BMJ. 2023;381:e074778. doi:10.1136/bmj-2023-074778
  2. Darney BG, Boniface ER, Van Lamsweerde A, et al. Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination on menstrual bleeding quantity: An observational cohort study. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2023/06/01 2023;130(7):803-812. doi: